Clinical Studies

Abstracts are presented below for clinical studies on Shatavari.

  • Botanical Name: Asparagus Racemosus

  • Ayurvedic Name: Shatavari

  • Common Name: Shatavari

Asparagus Racemosus

Plant Phytonutrient Profile


1: J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Mar 1;110(1):1-15. Epub 2007 Jan 4.

Asparagus racemosus-Ethnopharmacological evaluation and conservation needs.

Bopana N, Saxena S.

TERI University, Darbari Seth Block, Habitat Place, Lodhi Road, New Delhi
110003, India.

Asparagus racemosus Willd. (Asparagaceae) is an important medicinal plant of
tropical and subtropical India. Its medicinal usage has been reported in the
Indian and British Pharmacopoeias and in traditional systems of medicine such as
Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha. Asparagus racemosus is mainly known for its
phytoestrogenic properties. With an increasing realization that hormone
replacement therapy with synthetic oestrogens is neither as safe nor as
effective as previously envisaged, the interest in plant-derived oestrogens has
increased tremendously making Asparagus racemosus particularly important. The
plant has been shown to aid in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders and
in alcohol abstinence-induced withdrawal symptoms. In Ayurveda, Asparagus
racemosus has been described as a rasayana herb and has been used extensively as
an adaptogen to increase the non-specific resistance of organisms against a
variety of stresses. Besides use in the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery,
the plant also has potent antioxidant, immunostimulant, anti-dyspepsia and
antitussive effects. Due to its multiple uses, the demand for Asparagus
racemosus is constantly on the rise; however, the supply is rather erratic and
inadequate. Destructive harvesting, combined with habitat destruction in the
form of deforestation has aggravated the problem. The plant is now considered
'endangered' in its natural habitat. Therefore, the need for conservation of
this plant is crucial. This article aims to evaluate the biological activities,
pharmacological applications and clinical studies of Asparagus racemosus in an
attempt to provide a direction for further research. Keeping in mind the fact
that it is the active principle that imparts medicinal value to a plant;
consistency in quality and quantity needs to be maintained to ensure uniform
drug efficacy. Also, deliberate or inadvertent adulteration needs to be dealt
with at an early stage. To overcome these prevalent problems, the availability
of genetically superior and uniform planting material is essential. This can be
obtained by a combination of various biotechnological tools involving
chemoprofiling, tissue culture and use of molecular markers. Along with the
application of these methods, proper agro-techniques and adequate marketing
opportunities would encourage cultivation of Asparagus racemosus and thereby
contribute to its conservation. There are also several gaps in the existing
literature with regard to the pharmacological actions of Asparagus racemosus.
These include an incomplete understanding about the interaction/synergy between
Asparagus racemosus and other plant constituents in polyherbal formulations;
lack of information regarding the mode of action of the various constituents of
Asparagus racemosus, etc. Consequently, we have suggested a 'systems biology'
approach that includes metabolite profiling, metabolic fingerprinting,
metabolite target analysis and metabonomics to enable further research.

PMID: 17240097 [PubMed - in process]

2: J Endocrinol. 2007 Jan;192(1):159-68.

Insulin secretory actions of extracts of Asparagus racemosus root in perfused
pancreas, isolated islets and clonal pancreatic beta-cells.

Hannan JM, Marenah L, Ali L, Rokeya B, Flatt PR, Abdel-Wahab YH.

Diabetes Research Group, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster,
Coleraine, Northern Ireland, UK.

Asparagus racemosus root has previously been reported to reduce blood glucose in
rats and rabbits. In the present study, the effects of the ethanol extract and
five partition fractions of the root of A. racemosus were evaluated on insulin
secretion together with exploration of their mechanisms of action. The ethanol
extract and each of the hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate partition fractions
concentration-dependently stimulated insulin secretion in isolated perfused rat
pancreas, isolated rat islet cells and clonal beta-cells. The stimulatory
effects of the ethanol extract, hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate partition
fractions were potentiated by glucose, 3-isobutyl-1-methyl xanthine IBMX,
tolbutamide and depolarizing concentration of KCl. Inhibition of A.
racemosus-induced insulin release was observed with diazoxide and verapamil.
Ethanol extract and five fractions increased intracellular Ca(2+), consistent
with the observed abolition of insulin secretory effects under Ca(2+) -free
conditions. These findings reveal that constituents of A. racemosus root
extracts have wide-ranging stimulatory effects on physiological insulinotropic
pathways. Future work assessing the use of this plant as a source of active
components may provide new opportunities for diabetes therapy.

PMID: 17210753 [PubMed - in process]

3: Chem Biodivers. 2004 Feb;1(2):265-79.

Two pyrrolo[1,2-a]azepine type alkaloids from Stemona collinsae Craib: structure
elucidations, relationship to asparagamine A, and a new biogenetic concept of
their formation.

Seger C, Mereiter K, Kaltenegger E, Pacher T, Greger H, Hofer O.

Institute of Organic Chemistry, University of Vienna, Wahringerstrasse 38,
A-1090 Vienna. [email protected]

The alkaloids 1',2'-didehydrostemofoline (2) and 2'-hydroxystemofoline (3) from
Stemona collinsae Craib (Stemonaceae) were studied by X-ray crystallography and
NMR spectroscopy, and they are compared with the parent compound stemofoline
(1). The X-ray analysis of the CH2Cl2 solvate of 2'-hydroxystemofoline (3)
allowed the determination of the absolute configuration of this compound
unequivocally, whereas optical rotation was used to infer the absolute
configuration of 1',2'-didehydrostemofoline (2). Based on these results, it is
shown that asparagamine A isolated from Asparagus racemosus Willd.
(Asparagaceae) is identical to 1',2'-didehydrostemofoline obtained from S.
collinsae Craib, and that the reported plant source of asparagamine A was most
likely a Stemona species. In the context of the current investigations, a novel
concept on the biosynthesis of Stemona alkaloids has been worked out and is
presented here.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17191845 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

4: J Herb Pharmacother. 2006;6(1):13-20.

Antisecretory and antiulcer activity of Asparagus racemosus Willd. against
indomethacin plus phyloric ligation-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

Bhatnagar M, Sisodia SS.

Department of Zoology, University College of Science, MLS University,
Udaipur-313001, India. [email protected]

OBJECTIVE: To study the antisecretory and antiulcer activity of Asparagus
racemosus Willd. (methanolic extract) and its action against indomethacin (a
non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) plus pyloric ligation (PL)-induced gastric
ulcers in rats. METHOD: Indomethacin plus PL-induced gastric ulceration model
was used in the study. RESULTS: Treatment with Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari)
crude extract (100 mg/kg/day orally) for fifteen days significantly reduced
ulcer index when compared with control group. The reduction in gastric lesions
was comparable to a standard antiulcer drug Ranitidine (30 mg/kg/ day orally).
Crude extract also significantly reduced volume of gastric secretion, free
acidity and total acidity. A significant increase in total carbohydrate (TC) and
TC/total protein (TP) ratio of gastric juice was also observed. No significant
change in the total protein was noted. CONCLUSION: Asparagus racemosus was found
to be an effective antiulcerogenic agent, whose activity can well be compared
with that of ranitidine hydrochloride. The results of this study suggest that
Asparagus racemosus causes an inhibitory effect on release of gastric
hydrochloric acid and protects gastric mucosal damage.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 17135157 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

5: Indian J Exp Biol. 2006 Jul;44(7):570-3.

Teratogenicity of Asparagus racemosus Willd. root, a herbal medicine.

Goel RK, Prabha T, Kumar MM, Dorababu M, Prakash, Singh G.

Department of Anatomy, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu Univerisity,
Varanasi 221 005, India. [email protected]

Asparagus racemosus (AR) is a herb used as a rasayana in Ayurveda and is
considered both general and female reproductive tonic. Methanolic extract of A.
racemosus roots (ARM; 100 mg/kg/day for 60 days) showed teratological disorders
in terms of increased resorption of fetuses, gross malformations e.g. swelling
in legs and intrauterine growth retardation with a small placental size in
Charles Foster rats. Pups born to mother exposed to ARM for full duration of
gestation showed evidence of higher rate of resorption and therefore smaller
litter size. The live pup showed significant decrease in body weight and length
and delay of various developmental parameters when compared to respective
control groups. AR therefore, should be used in pregnancy cautiously as its
exposure during that period may cause damage to the offspring.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16872047 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

6: Phytochemistry. 2006 Jul;67(13):1316-21. Epub 2006 Jun 8.

Steroidal saponins from the fruits of Asparagus racemosus.

Mandal D, Banerjee S, Mondal NB, Chakravarty AK, Sahu NP.

Steroid and Terpenoid Chemistry Department, Indian Institute of Chemical
Biology, 4 Raja S C Mullick Road, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032, West Bengal, India.

Three steroidal saponins, racemosides A (1), B (2) and C (3), were isolated from
the methanolic extract of the fruits of Asparagus racemosus, and characterized
as (25S)-5beta-spirostan-3beta-ol-3-O-{beta-D- glucopyranosyl
(1-->6)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl
(1-->4)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside},
(25S)-5beta-spirostan-3beta-ol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl
(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside and
(25S)-5beta-spirostan-3beta-ol-3-O-{alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-[alpha-L-rha
mnopyranosyl (1-->4)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside}, respectively, by spectrometric
analysis and some chemical strategies.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16759676 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

7: Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005 Nov;1056:261-78.

Antiulcer and Antioxidant Activity of Asparagus racemosus WILLD and Withania
somnifera DUNAL in Rats.

Bhatnagar M, Sisodia SS, Bhatnagar R.

Department of Zoology, University College of Science, Mohan Lal Sukhadia
University, Udaipur-313001, India. [email protected]

Comparative study of the antiulcer and antisecretory activity of Asparagus
racemosus Willd (Shatawari) and Withania somnifera Dunal (Ashwagandha) root
extract with a standard drug, ranitidine, in various models of gastric ulcer in
rats is presented. Ulcer was induced by the indomethacin (NSAID) and swim
(restraint) stress treatment. Results demonstrated that A. racemosus as well as
W. somnifera methanolic extract (100 mg/kg BW/day p.o.) given orally for 15 days
significantly reduced the ulcer index, volume of gastric secretion, free
acidity, and total acidity. A significant increase in the total carbohydrate and
total carbohydrate/protein ratio was also observed. Study also indicated an
increase in antioxidant defense, that is, enzymes superoxide dismutase,
catalase, and ascorbic acid, increased significantly, whereas a significant
decrease in lipid peroxidation was observed. A. racemosus was more effective in
reducing gastric ulcer in indomethacin-treated gastric ulcerative rats, whereas
W. somnifera was effective in stress-induced gastric ulcer. Results obtained for
both herbal drugs were comparable to those of the standard drug ranitidine.

PMID: 16387694 [PubMed - in process]

8: Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Nov;27(9):633-8.

Antilithiatic effect of Asparagus racemosus Willd on ethylene glycol-induced
lithiasis in male albino Wistar rats.

Christina AJ, Ashok K, Packialakshmi M, Tobin GC, Preethi J, Murugesh N.

Department of Pharmacology, K.M. College of Pharmacy, Tamil Nadu, India.
[email protected]

The ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus Willd. was evaluated for its
inhibitory potential on lithiasis (stone formation), induced by oral
administration of 0.75% ethylene glycolated water to adult male albino Wistar
rats for 28 days. The ionic chemistry of urine was altered by ethylene glycol,
which elevated the urinary concentration of crucial ions viz. calcium, oxalate,
and phosphate, thereby contributing to renal stone formation. The ethanolic
extract, however, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the elevated level of these
ions in urine. Also, it elevated the urinary concentration of magnesium, which
is considered as one of the inhibitors of crystallization. The high serum
creatinine level observed in ethylene glycol-treated rats was also reduced,
following treatment with the extract. The histopathological findings also showed
signs of improvement after treatment with the extract. All these observations
provided the basis for the conclusion that this plant extract inhibits stone
formation induced by ethylene glycol treatment.

PMID: 16357948 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

9: Phytother Res. 2005 Aug;19(8):721-4.

Effect of Asparagus racemosus rhizome (Shatavari) on mammary gland and genital
organs of pregnant rat.

Pandey SK, Sahay A, Pandey RS, Tripathi YB.

Department of Anatomy, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University,
Varanasi 221005, India. [email protected]

Asparagus racemosus (AR) Willd (family Liliaceae) is commonly known as
Shatavari. The alcoholic extract of its rhizome was administered orally to adult
pregnant female albino rats at a dose of 30 mg/100 g body weight, daily for 15
days (days 1-15 of gestation). The macroscopic findings revealed a prominence of
the mammary glands, a dilated vaginal opening and a transversely situated
uterine horn in the treated group of animals. The weight of the uterine horns of
the treated group was found to be significantly higher (p < 0.001) but the
length was shorter (p > 0.01). Microscopic examination of the treated group
showed proliferation in the lumen of the duct of mammary gland. It was
obliterated due to hypertrophy of ductal and glandular cells. Hyperplasia of the
glandular and muscular tissue and hypertrophy of the glandular cells were
observed in the genital organs. The parenchyma of the genital organs showed
abundant glycogen granules with dilated blood vessels and thickening of the
epithelial lining. The oviduct in the treated group showed hypertrophied
muscular wall, whereas the ovary revealed no effect of the drug. The results
suggest an oestrogenic effect of Shatavari on the female mammary gland and
genital organs. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16177978 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

10: J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2005 Feb 25;8(1):39-46.

Anti-diarrhoeal potential of Asparagus racemosus wild root extracts in
laboratory animals.

Venkatesan N, Thiyagarajan V, Narayanan S, Arul A, Raja S, Vijaya Kumar SG,
Rajarajan T, Perianayagam JB.

K.P. College of Pharmacy, Thiruvannamalai, India.

PURPOSE: Asparagus racemosus Wild root has been used traditionally in Ayurveda
for the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery. However, the claims of Ayurveda
need to be validated by a suitable experimental model. Therefore, the present
study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of ethanol and aqueous extracts of
Asparagus racemosus for its antidiarrhoeal potential against several
experimental models of diarrhoea in Albino Wistar rats. METHODS: The
antidiarrhoeal activity of ethanol and aqueous extracts of Asparagus racemosus
root was evaluated using castor oil-induced diarrhoea model in rats. Further, we
evaluated the effect of ethanol and aqueous extracts on gastrointestinal tract
motility after charcoal meal administration and PGE2 induced intestinal fluid
accumulation (enteropooling). Loperamide was used as positive control. RESULTS:
The plant extracts showed significant (P < 0.05) inhibitor activity against
castor oil induced diarrhoea and PGE2 induced enteropooling in rats when tested
at 200 mg/kg. Both extracts also showed significant (P < 0.001) reduction in
gastrointestinal motility in charcoal meal test in rats. CONCLUSION: The results
point out the possible anti-diarrhoeal effect of the plant extracts and
substantiate the use of this herbal remedy as a non-specific treatment for
diarrhoea in folk medicine.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 15946596 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

11: Phytother Res. 2004 Sep;18(9):771-3.

Identification of antioxidant compound from Asparagus racemosus.

Wiboonpun N, Phuwapraisirisan P, Tip-pyang S.

Natural Products Research Unit, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science,
Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Roots of Asparagus racemosus were found to possess antioxidant property. DPPH
autography-directed separation resulted in the identification of a new
antioxidant compound named racemofuran (3) along with two known compounds
asparagamine A (1) and racemosol (2). The structure of 3 was fully characterized
by spectroscopic data (UV, MS, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and 2D NMR). Racemofuran
revealed antioxidant property against DPPH with IC50 value of 130 microM.
Copyright (c) 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15478181 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

12: J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Apr;91(2-3):251-5.

Immunoadjuvant potential of Asparagus racemosus aqueous extract in experimental
system.

Gautam M, Diwanay S, Gairola S, Shinde Y, Patki P, Patwardhan B.

Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, University of Pune, Pune,
Maharastra 411007, India. [email protected]

The immunoadjuvant potential of Asparagus racemosus (Willd.) Family (Liliaceae)
aqueous root extract was evaluated in experimental animals immunized with
diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (DTP) vaccine. Immunostimulation was evaluated
using serological and hematological parameters. Oral administration of test
material at 100 mg/kg per day dose for 15 days resulted significant increase (P
= 0.0052) in antibody titers to Bordtella pertussis as compared to untreated
(control) animals. Immunized animals (treated and untreated) were challenged
with B. pertussis 18323 strain and the animals were observed for 14 days.
Results indicate that the treated animals did show significant increase in
antibody titers as compared to untreated animals after challenge (P = 0.002).
Immunoprotection against intra-cerebral challenge of live B. pertussis cells was
evaluated based on degree of sickness, paralysis and subsequent death. Reduced
mortality accompanied with overall improved health status was observed in
treated animals after intra-cerebral challenge of B. pertussis indicating
development of protective immune response. Present study indicates applications
of test material as potential immunoadjuvant that also offers direct therapeutic
benefits resulting in less morbidity and mortality.

PMID: 15120447 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

13: J Neural Transm. 2004 Jan;111(1):1-12. Epub 2003 Dec 3.

Experimental excitotoxicity provokes oxidative damage in mice brain and
attenuation by extract of Asparagus racemosus.

Parihar MS, Hemnani T.

Biochemistry Division, Faculty of Life Science, School of Studies in Zoology,
Vikram University, Ujjain, M.P., India. [email protected]

Excitotoxicity and oxidative stress are the major mechanisms of neuronal cell
death in neurodegenerative disorders that occurs in both Alzheimer's and
Parkinson's diseases. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are generated
extracellularly and intracellularly by various mechanisms are among the major
risk factors that initiate and promote neurodegeneration.Therefore, it is
important to find the compound which retard or reverse the neuronal injury. We
designed this study to investigate the potential of extract of Asparagus
racemosus (AR) against kainic acid (KA)-induced hippocampal and striatal
neuronal damage. The dose of AR extract given to experimental animals was based
on the evaluation of its total antioxidant activity. Extract of AR displayed
potent reductant of Fe(3+). The excitotoxic lesion in brain was produced by
intra-hippocampal and intra-striatal injections of kainic acid (KA; 0.25 microg
in a volume of 0.5 microl) to ketamine and xylazine (200 and 2 mg/kg b.w.
respectively) anesthetized mice. The results showed impairment of hippocampus
and striatal regions of brain after KA injection marked by an increase in lipid
peroxidation and protein carbonyl content and decline in glutathione peroxidase
(GPx) activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) content. The AR extract
supplemented mice displayed an improvement in GPx activity and GSH content and
reduction in membranal lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl. We show that the
minimizing effect of AR extract on oxidative damage in addition to the elevation
of GPx activity and GSH content could eventually result in protective effect on
the KA-induced excitotoxicity.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 14714211 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

14: J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Jan;90(1):49-55.

Immunoprotection by botanical drugs in cancer chemotherapy.

Diwanay S, Chitre D, Patwardhan B.

Department of Microbiology, Abasaheb Garware College, Pune, India.

Most of the synthetic chemotherapeutic agents available today are
immunosuppressants, cytotoxic, and exert variety of side effects that are
particularly evident in cancer chemotherapy. Botanical based immunomodulators
are often employed as supportive or adjuvant therapy to overcome the undesired
effects of cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents and to restore normal health. Total
extract, polar and non-polar extracts, and their formulations, prepared from
medicinal plants mentioned in Ayurveda, namely, Withania somnifera (Linn Dunal)
(Solanaceae), Tinospora cordifolia (Miers) (Menispermaceae), and Asparagus
racemosus (Willd.) (Liliaceae), exhibited various immunopharmacological
activities in cyclophosphamide (CP)-treated mouse ascitic sarcoma. Treatment of
ascitic sarcoma-bearing mice with a formulation of total extracts of Withania
somnifera and Tinospora cordifolia (80:20) and alkaloid-free polar fraction of
Withania somnifera resulted in protection towards CP-induced myelo- and
immunoprotection as evident by significant increase in white cell counts and
hemagglutinating and hemolytic antibody titers. Treatment with these candidate
drugs will be important in development of supportive treatment with cancer
chemotherapy.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 14698508 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

15: Indian J Med Sci. 2003 Sep;57(9):408-14.

Asparagus racemosus--an update.

Goyal RK, Singh J, Lal H.

Pt. B. D. Sharma Post Graduate Institute of Medical Science, Rohtak, Haryana.

Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari) is recommended in Ayurvedic texts for prevention
and treatment of gastric ulcers, dyspepsia and as a galactogogue. A. racemosus
has also been used successfully by some Ayurvedic practitioners for nervous
disorders, inflammation, liver diseases and certain infectious diseases.
However, no scientific proof justifying aforementioned uses of root extract of
A. racemosus is available so far. Recently few reports are available
demonstrating beneficial effects of alcoholic and water extracts of the root of
A. racemosus in some clinical conditions and experimentally induced diseases,
e.g. galactogogue effect, antihepatotoxic and immunomodulatory activities. The
present article includes the detailed exploration of pharmacological properties
of the root extract of A. racemosus reported so far.

Publication Types:
Review

PMID: 14515032 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

16: Indian J Exp Biol. 2002 Oct;40(10):1173-7.

Antiulcerogenic activity of Satavari mandur--an Ayurvedic herbo-mineral
preparation.

Datta GK, Sairam K, Priyambada S, Debnath PK, Goel RK.

Department of Kayachikitsa, J B Roy State Ayurvedic Medical College and
Hospital, Calcutta 700 004, India.

Satavari mandur (SM) is a herbo-mineral preparation containing Asparagus
racemosus, which finds mention in ancient Indian texts for treatment of gastric
ulcers. The ulcer protective effect of SM, 125-500 mg/kg given orally, twice
daily for three, five and seven days, was studied on cold restraint
stress-induced gastric ulcer in rats. The effective regimen was found to be 250
mg/kg given for five days and hence was used for further experiments. SM showed
significant protection against acute gastric ulcers induced by pyloric ligation
but was ineffective against aspirin- and ethanol-induced ulcers. Further,
gastric juice studies showed that, SM significantly increased the mucosal
defensive factors like mucus secretion, but had little or no effect on offensive
factors like acid and pepsin secretion.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12693700 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

17: Indian J Exp Biol. 2002 Oct;40(10):1161-3.

Effect of poly herbal formulation, EuMil, on neurochemical perturbations induced
by chronic stress.

Bhattacharya A, Muruganandam AV, Kumar V, Bhattacharya SK.

Neuropharmacology Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical
Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India.

EuMil, a polyherbal formulation consisting of standardised extracts of Withania
somnifera (L) Dunal, Ocimum sanctum L, Asparagus racemosus Wilid and Emblica
officinalis Gaertn., is used as an anti-stress agent to attenuate the various
aspects of stress related disorders. In the present study, the neurochemical
mechanisms underlying the anti-stress activity of EuMil were evaluated by
measuring the rat brain monoamine neurotransmitter levels and tribulin activity.
Chronic electroshock stress (14 days) significantly decreased the nor-adrenaline
(NA) and dopamine (DA) levels in frontal Cortex, pons-medulla, hypothalamus,
hippocampus and striatal, hypothalamal region, respectively, and increased the
5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) level in frontal cortex, pons medulla, hypothalamus
and hippocampus. Chronic stress, also increased the rat brain tribulin activity.
EuMil (100 mg/kg, p.o., 14 days) treatment normalized the perturbed regional NA,
DA, 5HT concentrations, induced by chronic stress. EuMil also significantly
attenuated the stress-induced increase in the rat brain tribulin activity. The
amelioration of chronic stress-induced neurochemical perturbations by EuMil
explains the neurochemical mechanisms underlying the observed putative
anti-stress activity of the product.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12693697 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

18: Indian J Exp Biol. 2002 Oct;40(10):1151-60.

Effect of poly herbal formulation, EuMil, on chronic stress-induced homeostatic
perturbations in rats.

Muruganandam AV, Kumar V, Bhattacharya SK.

R & D Centre, Indian Herbs Ltd., Saharanpur 247 001, India. [email protected]

EuMil, is a herbal formulation comprising the standardised extracts of Withania
somnifera (L) Dunal, Ocimum sanctum L, Asparagus racemosus Willd and Emblica
officinalis Gaertn., all of which are classified in Ayurveda as rasayanas to
promote physical and mental health, improve defense mechanisms of the body and
enhance longevity. These attributes are similar to the modern concept of
adaptogenic agents, which are, known to afford protection to the human
physiological system against diverse stressors. The present study was undertaken
to investigate the adaptogenic and antistress activity of EuMil against chronic
unpredictable, but mild, footshock stress-induced perturbations in behaviour
(depression), glucose metabolism, suppressed male sexual behaviour,
immunosuppression and cognitive dysfunction in CF strain albino rats. Panex
ginseng (PG) was used for comparison. Gastric ulceration, plasma corticosterone
levels, serum lipid, hepatic and renal functions were used as the stress
indices. These effects were attenuated by EuMil (dose 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and PG
(100 mg/kg. p.o.), administered once daily over a period of 14 days, the period
of stress induction period. Further, chronic stress also induced glucose
intolerance, suppressed male sexual behaviour, induced behavioural despair and
cognitive dysfunction and immunosuppression. All these chronic stress-induced
perturbations were attenuated, in a dose dependent manner by EuMil and PG. Thus,
the results indicate that EuMil has significant adaptogenic and anti-stress,
activity, qualitatively comparable to PG, against a variety of behavioural,
biochemical and physiological perturbations, induced by unpredictable stress,
which has been proposed to be a better indicator of clinical stress than acute
stress. The likely contribution of the individual constituents of EuMil in the
observed adaptogenic action of the polyherbal formulation, has been discussed.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12693696 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

19: J Ethnopharmacol. 2003 May;86(1):1-10.

Gastroduodenal ulcer protective activity of Asparagus racemosus: an
experimental, biochemical and histological study.

Sairam K, Priyambada S, Aryya NC, Goel RK.

Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu
University, Varanasi 221005, India.

Asparagus racemosus is an Ayurvedic rasayana, which finds mention in ancient
Indian texts for treatment of gastric ulcers. The ulcer protective effect of
methanolic extract of fresh roots of A. racemosus (ARM), 25-100 mg/kg given
orally, twice daily for 5 days, was studied on different gastroduodenal ulcer
models. ARM 50 mg/kg, twice daily, orally (total saponins 0.9%) showed
significant protection against acute gastric ulcers induced by cold restraint
stress (CRS), pyloric ligation, aspirin plus pyloric ligation, and duodenal
ulcers induced by cysteamine. ARM in the above dose also significantly healed
chronic gastric ulcers induced by acetic acid after 10 days treatment. However,
ARM was ineffective against aspirin- and ethanol-induced gastric ulcers.
Further, gastric juice and mucosal studies showed that ARM significantly
increased the mucosal defensive factors like mucus secretion, cellular mucus,
life span of cells and also possessed significant anti-oxidant effect, but had
little or no effect on offensive factors like acid and pepsin.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12686434 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

20: Fitoterapia. 2001 Mar;72(3):307-9.

A new isoflavone from the roots of Asparagus racemosus.

Saxena VK, Chourasia S.

Natural Products Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Dr Harisingh Gour
University, -470003 (M.P.), Sagar, India.

The isolation and spectral data of a new isoflavone,
8-methoxy-5,6,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), from the
roots of Asparagus racemosus are reported.

PMID: 11295314 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

21: Indian J Exp Biol. 2000 Feb;38(2):119-28.

Adaptogenic activity of Siotone, a polyherbal formulation of Ayurvedic
rasayanas.

Bhattacharya SK, Bhattacharya A, Chakrabarti A.

Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu
University, Varanasi 221 005, India.

Siotone (ST) is a herbal formulation comprising of Withania somnifera, Ocimum
sanctum, Asparagus racemosus, Tribulus terristris and shilajit, all of which are
classified in Ayurveda as rasayanas which are reputed to promote physical and
mental health, improve defence mechanisms of the body and enhance longevity.
These attributes are similar to the modern concept of adaptogenic agents, which
are, known to afford protection of the human physiological system against
diverse stressors. The present study was undertaken to investigate the
adaptogenic activity of ST against chronic unpredictable, but mild, footshock
stress induced perturbations in behaviour (depression), glucose metabolism,
suppressed male sexual behaviour, immunosuppression and cognitive dysfunction in
CF strain albino rats. Gastric ulceration, adrenal gland and spleen weights,
ascorbic acid and corticosterone concentrations of adrenal cortex, and plasma
corticosterone levels, were used as the stress indices. Panax ginseng (PG) was
used as the standard adaptogenic agent for comparison. Additionally, rat brain
levels of tribulin, an endogenous endocoid postulated to be involved in stress,
were also assessed in terms of endogenous monoamine oxidase (MAO) A and MAOB
inhibitory activity. Chronic unpredictable footshock induced marked gastric
ulceration, significant increase in adrenal gland weight and plasma
corticosterone levels, with concomitant decreases in spleen weight, and
concentrations of adrenal gland ascorbic acid and corticosterone. These effects
were attenuated by ST (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and PG (100 mg/kg, p.o.),
administered once daily over a period of 14 days, the period of stress
induction. Chronic stress also induced glucose intolerance, suppressed male
sexual behaviour, induced behavioural depression (Porsolt's swim despair test
and learned helplessness test) and cognitive dysfunction (attenuated retention
of learning in active and passive avoidance tests), and immunosuppression
(leucocyte migration inhibition and sheep RBC challenged increase in paw oedema
in sensitized rats). All these chronic stress-induced perturbations were
attenuated, dose-dependently by ST (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and PG (100 mg/kg,
p.o.). Chronic stress-induced increase in rat brain tribulin activity was also
reversed by these doses of ST and by PG. The results indicate that ST has
significant adaptogenic activity, qualitatively comparable to PG, against a
variety of behavioural, biochemical and physiological perturbations induced by
unpredictable stress, which has been proposed to be a better indicator of
clinical stress than acute stress parameters. The likely contribution of the
individual constituents of ST in the observed adaptogenic action of the
polyherbal formulation, have been discussed.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11218827 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

22: Fitoterapia. 2000 Dec;71(6):686-9.

Antitussive effect of Asparagus racemosus root against sulfur dioxide-induced
cough in mice.

Mandal SC, Kumar C K A, Mohana Lakshmi S, Sinha S, Murugesan T, Saha BP, Pal M.

Division of Pharmacognosy, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of
Engineering and Technology, Jadavpur University, Calcutta-700 032, India.
[email protected]

The methanol extract of Asparagus racemosus root (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.)
showed significant antitussive activity on sulfur dioxide-induced cough in mice,
the cough inhibition (40.0 and 58.5%, respectively) being comparable to that of
10-20 mg/kg of codeine phosphate (36.0 and 55.4%, respectively).

PMID: 11077176 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

23: J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Aug;71(3):425-35.

Antioxidant properties of Asparagus racemosus against damage induced by
gamma-radiation in rat liver mitochondria.

Kamat JP, Boloor KK, Devasagayam TP, Venkatachalam SR.

Cell Biology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, 400 085, Mumbai, India.

The possible antioxidant effects of crude extract and a purified aqueous
fraction of Asparagus racemosus against membrane damage induced by the free
radicals generated during gamma-radiation were examined in rat liver
mitochondria. gamma-Radiation, in the dose range of 75-900 Gy, induced lipid
peroxidation as assessed by the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive
substances (TBARS) and lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH). Using an effective dose of
450 Gy, antioxidant effects of A. racemosus extract were studied against
oxidative damage in terms of protection against lipid peroxidation, protein
oxidation, depletion of protein thiols and the levels of the antioxidant enzyme,
superoxide dismutase. An active fraction consisting of polysaccharides (termed
as P3) was effective even at a low concentration of 10 microg/ml. Both the crude
extract as well as the P3 fraction significantly inhibited lipid peroxidation
and protein oxidation. The antioxidant effect of P3 fraction was more pronounced
against lipid peroxidation, as assessed by TBARS formation, while that of the
crude extract was more effective in inhibiting protein oxidation. Both the crude
extract and P3 fraction also partly protects against radiation-induced loss of
protein thiols and inactivation of superoxide dismutase. The inhibitory effects
of these active principles, at the concentration of 10 microg/ml, are comparable
to that of the established antioxidants glutathione and ascorbic acid. Hence our
results indicate that extracts from A. racemosus have potent antioxidant
properties in vitro in mitochondrial membranes of rat liver.

PMID: 10940579 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

24: Phytother Res. 2000 Mar;14(2):118-9.

Evaluation of antibacterial activity of Asparagus racemosus willd. root.

Mandal SC, Nandy A, Pal M, Saha BP.

Division of Pharmacognosy, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of
Engineering and Technology, Jadavpur University, Calcutta - 700 032, India.
[email protected]

Different concentrations (50, 100, 150 microg/mL) of the methanol extract of the
roots of Asparagus racemosus Willd. showed considerable in vitro antibacterial
efficacy against Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella sonnei,
Shigella flexneri, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella typhimurium,
Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. The effects
produced by the methanol extract were compared with chloramphenicol. Copyright
2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

PMID: 10685109 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

25: Environ Health Perspect. 1999 Oct;107(10):783-9.

Ancient-modern concordance in Ayurvedic plants: some examples.

Dev S.

University of Delhi, B.R.A. Centre for Biomedical Research, Delhi, India.
[email protected]

Ayurveda is the ancient (before 2500 b.c.) Indian system of health care and
longevity. It involves a holistic view of man, his health, and illness.
Ayurvedic treatment of a disease consists of salubrious use of drugs, diets, and
certain practices. Medicinal preparations are invariably complex mixtures, based
mostly on plant products. Around 1,250 plants are currently used in various
Ayurvedic preparations. Many Indian medicinal plants have come under scientific
scrutiny since the middle of the nineteenth century, although in a sporadic
fashion. The first significant contribution from Ayurvedic materia medica came
with the isolation of the hypertensive alkaloid from the sarpagandha plant
(Rouwolfia serpentina), valued in Ayurveda for the treatment of hypertension,
insomnia, and insanity. This was the first important ancient-modern concordance
in Ayurvedic plants. With the gradual coming of age of chemistry and biology,
disciplines central to the study of biologic activities of natural products,
many Ayurvedic plants have been reinvestigated. Our work on Commiphora wightti
gum-resin, valued in Ayurveda for correcting lipid disorders, has been described
in some detail; based on these investigations, a modern antihyperlipoproteinemic
drug is on the market in India and some other countries. There has also been
concordance for a few other Ayurvedic crude drugs such as Asparagus racemosus,
Cedrus deodara, and Psoralea corylifolia.

PMID: 10504143 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

26: Phytother Res. 1999 Jun;13(4):275-91.

Adaptogenic properties of six rasayana herbs used in Ayurvedic medicine.

Rege NN, Thatte UM, Dahanukar SA.

Ayurveda Research Centre, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Seth GS
Medical College, Parel, Mumbai, India. [email protected]

Plants from all over the world such as Eleutherococcus senticosus, Panax
ginseng, Raponticum carthamoides, Rhodiola rosea, Withania somnifera and Ocimum
sanctum have been extensively evaluated for their adaptogenic potential.
However, none of them has been successfully introduced as an adaptogen in the
clinic. This paper discusses some of the problems in evaluation of adaptogens
which have precluded their inclusion as clinically useful drugs. We further
discuss our results with six rasayana plants from Ayurveda, which were studied
for their adaptogenic potential. The whole, aqueous, standardized extracts of
selected plants (Tinospora cordifolia, Asparagus racemosus, Emblica officinalis,
Withania somnifera, Piper longum and Terminalia chebula) were administered
orally to experimental animals, in a dose extrapolated from the human dose,
following which they were exposed to a variety of biological, physical and
chemical stressors. These plants were found to offer protection against these
stressors, as judged by using markers of stress responses and objective
parameters for stress manifestations. Using a model of cisplatin induced
alterations in gastrointestinal motility, the ability of these plants to exert a
normalizing effect, irrespective of direction of pathological change was tested.
All the plants reversed the effects of cisplatin on gastric emptying, while
Tinospora cordifolia and Asparagus racemosus also normalized cisplatin induced
intestinal hypermotility. Tinospora cordifolia was also tested for its ability
to modulate the changes occurring in the phagocytic activity of peritoneal
macrophages after exposure of rats to either carbon tetrachloride or horse
serum. It was found to normalize the phagocytic function irrespective to the
direction of change, complying to the definition of an adaptogen. All the plant
drugs were found to be safe in both acute and subacute toxicity studies. Studies
on the mechanisms of action of the plants revealed that they all produced
immunostimulation. The protection offered by Tinospora cordifolia against stress
induced gastric mucosal damage was lost if macrophage activity was blocked.
Emblica officinalis strengthened the defence mechanisms against free radical
damage induced during stress. The effect of Emblica officinalis appeared to
depend on the ability of target tissues to synthesize prostaglandins. Recent
data obtained with Tinospora cordifolia suggest that it may induce genotypic
adaptation, further opening the arena for more research and experimentation.

Publication Types:
Review

PMID: 10404532 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

27: J Ethnopharmacol. 1997 Sep;58(1):15-20.

Effect of some Indian herbs on macrophage functions in ochratoxin A treated
mice.

Dhuley JN.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Research Centre, Hindustan
Antibiotics Limited, Pimpri, India.

The effect of Indian herbs namely, Asparagus racemosus, Tinospora cordifolia,
Withania somnifera and Picrorhiza kurrooa on the functions of macrophages
obtained from mice treated with the carcinogen ochratoxin A (OTA) was
investigated. The chemotactic activity of murine macrophages was significantly
decreased by 17 weeks of treatment with OTA compared with controls. Production
of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was also markedly
reduced. Treatment with Asparagus racemosus, Tinospora cordifolia, Withania
somnifera and Picrorhiza kurrooa significantly inhibited OTA-induced suppression
of chemotactic activity and production of IL-1 and TNF-alpha by macropahges.
Moreover, we found that Withania somnifera treated macrophage chemotaxis and
that Asparagus racemosus induced excess production of TNF-alpha when compared
with controls.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 9324000 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

28: Indian Pediatr. 1996 Aug;33(8):675-7.

Randomized controlled trial of Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari) as a lactogogue
in lactational inadequacy.

Sharma S, Ramji S, Kumari S, Bapna JS.

Department of Pharmacology, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 8979551 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

29: Pharmacol Res. 1993 Dec;28(4):333-40.

Phytochemical screening and molluscicidal potency of some Zairean medicinal
plants.

Chifundera K, Baluku B, Mashimango B.

Laboratory of Medicinal Plants and Herpetology, Centre de Recherche en Sciences
Naturelles, Bukuvu, Kivu, Zaire.

A total number of 48 plants used in the Zairean pharmacopoeia were tested
against molluscan intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis.
Aqueous and ethanolic extracts from five plants: Maesa lanceolata, Chenopodium
ugandae, Asparagus racemosus, Phyllanthus nummulariifolius and Crinum
zeylanicum, exhibited high mortality rate (100%) against Biomphalaria pfeifferi
and Lymnaea natalensis. Their LC50 was respectively 0.1, 5, 5, 10 and 50 mg ml-1
for B. pfeifferi and 0.5, 5, 1, 10 and 10 mg ml-1 for L. natalensis. The
activities are attributed to the presence of terpenoids, steroids and saponins
in the plant extracts. Except for the extracts from Ch. ugandae however, the
plants have shown toxic effect on fishes and aquatic insects.

PMID: 8140033 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

30: J Postgrad Med. 1993 Jan-Mar;39(1):22-5.

Quantitation of microbicidal activity of mononuclear phagocytes: an in vitro
technique.

Rege NN, Dahanukar SA.

Dept of Pharmacology, Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Parel, Bombay,
Maharashtra.

An in vitro assay technique was set up to determine the phagocytic and
microbicidal activity of a monocyte-macrophage cell line using Candida species
as test organisms. The norms were determined for the activity of peritoneal
macrophages of rats (24.69 +/- 2.6% phagocytosis and 35.4 +/- 5.22% ICK) and
human (27.89 +/- 3.63% phagocytosis and 50.91 +/- 6.3% ICK). The assay technique
was used to test the degree of activation of macrophages induced by
metronidazole, Tinospora cordifolia and Asparaqus racemousus and to compare
their effects with a standard immunomodulator muramyl-dipeptide. All the three
test agents increased the phagocytic and killing capacity of macrophages in a
dose dependent manner upto a certain dose, beyond which either these activities
were found to have plateaued or decreased. The optimal doses for MDP,
Metronidazole, Asparagus racemosus and Tinospora cordifolia were found to be 100
micrograms, 300 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg respectively. Patients with
cirrhosis were screened for defects in monocyte function. The depressed monocyte
function (20.58 +/- 5% phago and 41.24 +/- 12.19% ICK; P < 0.05) was observed
indicating a compromised host defense. The utility of this candidicidal assay in
experimental and clinical studies is discussed.

PMID: 8295140 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

31: J Postgrad Med. 1990 Apr;36(2):91-4.

Effect of Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari) on gastric emptying time in normal
healthy volunteers.

Dalvi SS, Nadkarni PM, Gupta KC.

Department of Pharmacology, Seth G. S. Medical College, Bombay, Maharashtra.

Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari) is used in Ayurveda for dyspepsia (amlapitta)
and as a galactogogue. It was hence compared with a modern drug, metoclopramide,
which is used in dyspepsia to reduce gastric emptying time. Gastric emptying
half- time (GE t1/2) was studied in 8 healthy male volunteers using a cross-over
design. The basal GE t1/2 in volunteers was 159.9 +/- 45.9 min (mean +/- SD)
which was reduced to 101 +/- 40.8 min by Shatavari (p less than 0.001) and to
85.3 +/- 21.9 by metoclopramide (p less than 0.001). Metoclopramide and
Shatavari did not differ significantly in their effects.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 2097375 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

32: J Postgrad Med. 1989 Oct;35(4):199-203.

Immunotherapeutic modulation of intraperitoneal adhesions by Asparagus
racemosus.

Rege NN, Nazareth HM, Isaac A, Karandikar SM, Dahanukar SA.

The hypothesis that macrophages appear to play a pivotal role in the development
of intraperitoneal adhesions and that modulation of macrophage activity,
therefore, is likely to provide a tool for prevention of adhesions, was tested
in the present study. Effect of Asparagus racemosus, an indigenous agent with
immunostimulant properties, was evaluated in an animal model of intraperitoneal
adhesions induced by caecal rubbing. Animals were sacrificed 15 days following
surgery. The peritoneal macrophages were collected to assess their activity. At
the same time, peritoneal cavity was examined for the presence of adhesions,
which were graded. A significant decrease was observed in the adhesion scores
attained by animals receiving Asparagus racemosus. This was associated with
significant increase in the activity of macrophages (70.1 +/- 2.52), compared to
that in surgical controls (53.77 +/- 10.8). These findings support our
hypothesis and provide a novel approach for the prevention and management of
post-operative adhesions.

PMID: 2641519 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

33: Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 1988 Oct;10(10):639-44.

Comparative study of immunomodulating activity of Indian medicinal plants,
lithium carbonate and glucan.

Thatte UM, Dahanukar SA.

Department of Pharmacology, Seth G.S. Medical College, Bombay, India.

The protective effects of Asparagus racemosus (AR) and Tinospora cordifolia (TC)
against myelosuppression induced by single doses of cyclophosphamide (CP) have
been previously reported. Presented here are the results of a comparative study
between AR, TC, glucan and lithium carbonate against the myelosuppressive
effects of single and multiple doses of cyclophosphamide in mice.
Cyclophosphamide was administered as a single dose 200 mg/kg subcutaneously to
one group of mice, while a second group received 3 doses of 30 mg/kg
intraperitoneally. Both groups received AR, TC and lithium orally for 15 days
before CP. Glucan was administered intravenously in 3 doses, before
cyclophosphamide in the first group and together with cyclophosphamide in the
second group. In both groups peripheral and differential WBC counts were done
before and after drug treatment and serially after cyclophosphamide injection.
All four drugs produced leucocytosis with neutrophilia. When compared to control
group, all 4 drugs prevented, to varying degrees, leucopenia produced by
cyclophosphamide. We conclude, therefore, that both indigenous plants, AR and
TC, are potent immunostimulants, with effects comparable to lithium and glucan.
They need further evaluation in patients receiving cytotoxic drugs.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 3236938 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

34: Int J Cancer. 1981 Nov 15;28(5):607-10.

Inhibitory action of Asparagus racemosus on DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis
in rats.

Rao AR.

PMID: 6796529 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

35: Planta Med. 1969 Oct;17(4):393-5.

Amylase and lipase activities in the root of Asparagus racemosus.

Dange PS, Kanitkar UK, Pendse GS.

PMID: 5380197 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

36: Indian Vet J. 1969 Aug;46(8):718-21.

Asparagus racemosus willd--form bordi, as a galactogogue, in buffaloes.

Patel AB, Kanitkar UK.

PMID: 5389557 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

37: Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther. 1969 May;179(1):121-9.

Antioxytocic action of saponin isolated from Asparagus racemosus Willd
(Shatavari) on uterine muscle.

Gaitonde BB, Jetmalani MH.

Publication Types:
In Vitro

PMID: 5348388 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

38: Indian J Exp Biol. 1968 Jan;6(1):55-7.

Effects of alcoholic extracts of Asparagus racemosus on mammary glands of rats.

Sabnis PB, Gaitonde BB, Jetmalani M.

PMID: 5666039 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

39: Indian Med J. 1967 Jul;61(7):165.

Galactogogue effect of Asparagus racemosus. Preliminary communication.

Joglekar GV, Ahuja RH, Balwani JH.

PMID: 5624301 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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